Faculty of Economics and Administration Science - Economics

About Economics

Economics is a social science that studies how individuals, businesses, governments, and societies make choices about allocating scarce resources to satisfy their unlimited wants and needs. Here are some key areas and concepts within economics:

 Key Areas of Economics

1. Microeconomics:
Focuses on individual agents and markets.
Analyzes how households and firms make decisions and interact in specific markets.
 Key concepts: supply and demand, elasticity, utility, production, and cost.

2. Macroeconomics:
Examines the economy as a whole.
 Studies aggregate indicators such as GDP, unemployment rates, and inflation.
Analyzes economic policies and their impact on growth, stability, and employment.

 Fundamental Concepts

1. Scarcity and Choice:
 Resources are limited while wants are unlimited, leading to the necessity of making choices.
Opportunity cost is the next best alternative forgone when making a choice.

2. Supply and Demand:
Law of Demand: As the price of a good falls, the quantity demanded usually increases, and vice versa.
Law of Supply: As the price of a good rises, the quantity supplied usually increases, and vice versa.
Market equilibrium occurs where supply equals demand.

3. Elasticity:
 Measures the responsiveness of quantity demanded or supplied to changes in price.
 Price elasticity of demand and supply, income elasticity, and cross-price elasticity are important types.

4. Market Structures:
Vary from perfect competition to monopoly.
Include monopolistic competition and oligopoly, each with distinct characteristics and implications for pricing and output.

5. Economic Indicators:
Gross Domestic Product (GDP): Measures the total value of goods and services produced in an economy.
Inflation: The rate at which the general level of prices for goods and services is rising.
Unemployment Rate: The percentage of the labor force that is jobless and actively seeking employment.

6. Fiscal and Monetary Policy:
Fiscal Policy: Government adjusts its spending levels and tax rates to influence the economy.
Monetary Policy: Central banks manage the money supply and interest rates to control inflation and stabilize the currency.

 Economic Theories and Models

1. Classical Economics:
 Emphasizes free markets, competition, and the idea that markets self-regulate.
Key figures: Adam Smith, David Ricardo, and Thomas Malthus.

2. Keynesian Economics:
Advocates for active government intervention in the economy to manage demand and smooth out economic cycles.
Developed by John Maynard Keynes.

3. Monetarism:
 Focuses on the role of government in controlling the amount of money in circulation.
Key proponent: Milton Friedman.

4. Behavioral Economics:
 Studies how psychological factors affect economic decision-making.
 Incorporates insights from psychology to explain why people sometimes make irrational economic choices.

5. Development Economics:
Examines the economic development process in low-income countries.
Focuses on improving living standards, reducing poverty, and achieving sustainable growth.

Applications and Policy Implications

1. Public Policy:
 Economic principles guide policy decisions in taxation, healthcare, education, and welfare.

2. International Trade and Finance:
 Studies the flow of goods, services, and capital across borders.
 Analyzes trade policies, exchange rates, and the impact of globalization.

3. Environmental Economics:
Examines the economic impact of environmental policies and the cost-benefit analysis of sustainable practices.

4. Labor Economics:
Studies the functioning and dynamics of labor markets.
Focuses on employment, wages, and labor productivity.


Economics provides essential tools and frameworks for understanding how societies allocate resources, make decisions, and address challenges. It combines theoretical models with empirical data to analyze trends, make predictions, and propose solutions to various economic issues.